List animal testing

But the patients suffering from these infections were not humans, but laboratory monkeys. We now recognize these so-called "opportunistic infections" as signals of the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV that causes AIDS. But at that time, the disease was just being recognized in humans, the term "AIDS" itself was unknown, and the cause of all these infections was still a frightening mystery.

Letvin, now professor of medicine at Harvard, says HIV probably began as a relatively harmless virus that infected some species of African monkeys. When it crossed species lines, it did so in several directions, spreading simultaneously into both human and additional non-human primate populations. In these new populations, the infection had much more serious consequences than in student papers animal testing African monkeys: it was lethal. But to Letvin, the realization that a parallel syndrome was occurring in man and practice essay writing was a tremendous opportunity.

We are forced to work in these models if we want to answer these questions. Periodic argument animal testing samples are taken to monitor their white blood cell counts and viral replication.

There are hundreds of approaches one could take. Letvin points out that an AIDS vaccine would save millions of human lives, particularly in populations where expensive treatment is not available. Thus the use of animals in research on diseases such as AIDS seems fated to continue for years to come.

If the past is any indication, it will probably yield a rich crop of new medical information. Perhaps the more accurate question then-under the circumstances-is, how much do we care about animal suffering?

Is it worthwhile to consider that issue in our quest for better treatment for diseases? Since Peter Singer formulated his ideas, the animal-protection movement has gone from a series of staccato eruptions to a steady influence on the course of medical research.

An Ethical Argument Against Animal Experiments

Everyone involved in the animal-research debate admits that the situation has changed considerably during the last 25 years. Ernie Prentice, a nationally recognized expert in the regulation and ethics of animal research and a member of the institutional animal care and use committee at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, can remember a time when animals were routinely subjected to painful measures without pain control.

In one well-publicized list animal testing, pigs were burned without anesthetic; in another long-running research project, monkeys were subjected to traumatic blows to the head without analgesics. Animals progressed to the end stages of artificially induced malignancies, renal failure, and heart disease, all without any form of pain control.

They would be unacceptable for at least two reasons," says Prentice. If you had sat in on a meeting of an IACUC in and were able to compare the level of discussion back then with what goes on today, you would see a tremendous difference.

Moreover, in all cases where animal testing is used, FDA advocates that research and testing derive the maximum amount of useful scientific information from the minimum number of animals and employ the most humane methods available within the limits of scientific capability. Home Staff About. Close Menu. RSS Feed.

Animal testing paper outline

Submit Search. Opinion Is Animal Testing Cruel? Share on Facebook. For example, a drug called Vioxx, which is used to treat arthritis, was taken off the market after it caused more than 60, deaths in the U. S alone. This drug was successful on animals, but proved deadly to humans. Therefore animals are being senselessly hurt, and humans are also suffering serious consequences. Some people may believe that there are laws to protect animals from mistreatment.

In some cases this is true. Animals are protected, by an act called the Animal Welfare Act AWAwhich is a federal law that regulates the treatment of animals in research and exhibition. However, animals such as rats, mice, fish and birds are not animal testing cons by the AWA.

The Animal Welfare Act should be modified so that it protects all of the animals used for scientific research. One alternative to animal testing is collecting human cells and studying the effects of medications and products on those cells in a petri dish.

The rabbits used for experiment have their eyelids held open by clips for at least 3 days during the test, causing enormous pain and discomfort. A single rat or mouse will cost several hundred dollars per year. Now multiply those costs by the million animals that are rotated through the animal testing industry each year. Companies are spending billions of dollars on antiquated research practices when that money could be used for research and development procedures that are more effective.

The sleeping pill thalidomide caused severe deformities to thousands of babies being born.

Animal testing papers

The arthritis drug tested on mice protected its hear but caused heart attack and cardiac death in humans. The major disadvantage of animal testing sometimes is non-reliability. Many scientists oppose using such poor test subjects even if they have the list animal testing anatomy and biology. The test conducted on mice cannot show the same effect on 70 kilograms humans.

The lack of a direct comparison of human data versus that of a rat puts in the question of the usefulness of the experiment. The real question is; what is right? As humans, we have always had an immense drive to forage forward through the creation of cures and technology. In order to create these things there must be sacrifice, often in the student papers animal testing of animal lives. There are companies who breed animals specifically for testing and animals can be purchased through them.

Animals and humans are never exactly the same: There is also the argument that the reaction of a drug in an animal's body is quite different from the reaction in a human. The main criticism here is that some believe animal testing is unreliable.

Following on that criticism is the premise that because animals are in an unnatural environment, they will be under stress. Therefore, they won't react to the drugs in the same way compared to their potential reaction in a natural environment. This argument further weakens the validity of animal experimentation. Personal Choice While there are numerous pros and cons of animal testing, the ethical aspect overshadows both of them, which means that emotion may be the ultimate determining factor in whether a person believes the benefits of animal testing outweigh the problems associated with the practice.

For more information about the ethics of animal testing on this site, read the following features:. Although there will always be a risk when testing new items, even after animal research has provided positive data, the risks to a human without animal research would be incredibly high.

Through animal research, the legality of accidentally causing the death of an animal is very different than what would occur with the accidental death of a human. It provides an opportunity to examine a complete life cycle. In many countries, the average life expectancy of a human exceeds 70 years of age.

Some nations have an average life expectancy of over 80 years. In comparison, a mouse has a lifespan of years, allowing researchers the opportunity to study through research and experimentation how something may affect the life cycle.

Any long-term research involves mice and rats because of this unique aspect to the research. There are protections in place for the animals. Although animal research may have ethical concerns, the US has regulated its practice since Risks are not morally transferable to those who do not choose to take them" qtd.

Animals do not willingly sacrifice themselves for the advancement of human welfare and new technology.

Student papers animal testing

Their decisions are made for them because they cannot vocalize their own preferences and choices. When humans decide the fate of animals in research environments, the animals' rights are taken away without any thought of their well-being or the quality of their lives.

Therefore, animal experimentation should be stopped because it violates the rights of animals. Next, the pain and suffering that experimental animals are subject to is not worth any possible benefits to humans.

Animals feel pain in many of the same ways that humans do; in fact, their reactions to pain are virtually identical both humans and animals scream, for example.

When animals are used for product toxicity testing or laboratory research, they are subjected to painful and frequently deadly experiments. Two of the most commonly used toxicity tests are the Draize test and the LD50 test, both of which are infamous for introduction in pursuasive speech on animal testing intense pain and suffering they inflect upon experimental animals. In the Draize test the substance or product being tested is placed in the eyes of an animal generally a rabbit is used for this test ; then the animal is monitored for damage to the cornea and other tissues in and near the eye.

This test is intensely painful for the animal, and blindness, scarring, and death are generally the end results. The Draize test has been criticized for being unreliable and a needless waste of animal life. The Essays racial profiling test is used to test the dosage of a substance that is necessary to cause death in fifty percent of the animal subjects within a certain amount of time.

To perform this test, the researchers hook the animals argument animal testing to tubes that pump huge amounts of the test product into their stomachs until they die. This test is extremely painful to the animals because death can take days or even weeks.

According to Orlans, the animals suffer from "vomiting, diarrhea, paralysis, convulsion, and internal bleeding. Since death is the required endpoint, dying animals are not put out of their misery by euthanasia" The precision it purports to provide is an illusion because of uncontrollable biological variables" The use of the Draize test and the LD50 test to examine product toxicity has decreased over the past few years, but these tests have not been eliminated completely.

Thus, because animals are subjected to agonizing pain, suffering and death when they are used in laboratory and cosmetics testing, animal research must be stopped to prevent more waste of animal life. Finally, the testing of products on animals is completely unnecessary because viable alternatives are available. Many cosmetic companies, for example, have sought better ways to test their products without the use of animal subjects.

In Against Animal Testinga pamphlet published by The Body Shop, a well-known cosmetics and bath-product company based in London, the development of products that "use natural ingredients, like bananas and Basil nut oil, as well as others with a long history of safe human usage" is advocated instead of testing on animals 3.

Furthermore, the Draize test has become practically obsolete because of the development of a synthetic cellular tissue that closely resembles human skin.

Argumentative Essay : The Cons Of Animal Testing - Words - Cram

Researchers can test the potential damage that a product can do to the skin by using this artificial "skin" instead of testing on animals. Until recently, scientists did not treat animals with the utmost respect and even used such methods as vivisection, or basically against animal testing articles on a live animal without any form of anesthetic, as a means of testing on animals. It is obvious why people would be against animal testing in the past, but now technology and new laws have brought us into a new era in which animal testing can be much more humane when it is used Michael W.

Fox estimates that twenty-five to thirty-five million animals are used in the United States each year for laboratory testing and research Research involving tests done on animals is unnecessary and cruel.

More humane methods of research need to be employed. Fox states that animal tests on cosmetics and household products are nothing more than a "public relations campaign to dispel public concern and give a false sense of security" Research Papers words 4 pages.

However, it was challenging because I strongly oppose animal testing.

Against Animal Testing Argumentative Essay Example -

The rhetorical analysis played a role in this, because I was required to use the various rhetorical appeals to compose a strong argument. Using the appeals definitely helped in trying to persuade the reader to acknowledge the opposing view.

Writing this paper did not affect my original line of thinking in regards to the topic Research Papers words 3. Without animal research, the development of antibiotics and insulin would have been delayed. Without animal research, many human beings would now be dead. However, because of animal testing,dogs, 50, cats, 60, primates, 1. Research Papers words 5. According to data collected by F.

Barbara Orlans for her book, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal testing cons Experimentation, sixty percent of all animals used in testing are used in biomedical research and product-safety testing In this day in age there is no morally decent reason for animal testing to continue as it causes too much pain and suffering for animals all over the world. Against animal testing articles hope that the United Kingdom provide the necessary funding for alternatives such as the ones I just mentioned to replace the current animal testing system.

Furthermore, I hope that the whole world changes their laws to replace animal testing with these alternatives as it would benefit so many animals globally, without effect human beings. Why should animal testing continue when it could be prevented and replaced? Does the government want these animals to die?

Nevertheless, there is always two sides to an argument and an obvious one is that animal testing helps researchers to find drugs and treatments, it aids researchers in finding drugs and treatments to improve health and medicine. Many medical treatments have been made possible by animal testing, including cancer treatment and HIV drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and many more.